This set of achievements are rewarded for completing episodes/chapters in the game.
You will gain them all naturally if you are going for all 4 endings.
I suggest following Equitas Invictus' 4 Endings guide
By going for the Miou endings first, you can get the following 12 achievements..
Find Your Calling
Complete Episode 1: "Daihon'ei Unfrozen"
Complete Episode 2: "Imperial-Capital Conquering Regiment"
Complete Episode 3: "Attack the Armored Train!"
Complete Episode 4: "Defeat the Conspiracy and Conquer Castle Matsumoto"
Complete Episode 5: "The Blue Sea and the New Tank"
Sea of Flames
Complete Episode 6: "The General from Hell"
Complete Episode 7: "Under the Flag from the Past"
Complete Episode 8: "Annihilate All Stray Tanks"
Complete Episode 9: "Operation: White Wall"
When They Cry
Complete Episode 10: "Conquer the Northern Area"
The Last Samurai
Complete Episode 11: "Infiltrate the Nagoya Tower"
Complete Episode 12: "What the Sword is for"
You get Radio Head whether you win or lose "What the Sword is for". The next scenario will be based on Episode 12's results. The next 2 achievements relate to the Miou endings.
If you lose, you will be on the path to..
A Wish Fulfilled
Complete Episode 13: "Miou Liberation Front"
If you win, you'll be set for..
Complete Episode 13: "Charge! Human Tanks"
These 3 achievements are part of the Kurara path:
Complete Episode 9: "Kurara Iikura Strikes Back"
Complete Episode 10: "The Meow-Meow Naval Battle"
Ties of Compassion
Complete Episode 12: "The End of the Decisive Battle in Shinjuku"
The next 2 achievements relate to the Kurara endings.
The True Enemy
Complete Episode 13: "The Daihon'ei Rebel Unit"True Enemy
requires you to lose Episode 07 (Shadow from the Past).
A Regal Reception
Complete Episode 13: "The Will to Fight"Regal Reception
can requires you to lose 2 battles (Episode 07 needs to be one of them). As Equitas Invictus mentioned, this can be combined with..
Satou's Boot Camp of Hell
Complete Episode 5: "Pass Satou's Test"
..by losing Episode 02 (Imperial-Capital Conquering) or the battle for Yumishirogahara).
The End of the War As We Know It
Finish War of the Human Tanks
You'll get this during the first time you complete the game.
War of the Human Tanks
For Those Who Saw It All
This achievement requires you to see all endings. These 4 endings are all tied to the Episode 13 achievements.